Skip to Content
We are fully operational and available for both in-person and remote meetings. Please click here to see a Letter from Solkoff Legal, P.A. regarding the Coronavirus pandemic.
Updates from Solkoff Legal

Ask Your Elder Law Lawyer These 10 Questions


elder law attorney

When meeting an Elder Law Lawyer for the first time it is hard to know what you need to know. We assembled the most important questions here.


1. Can my loved one sign legal documents even with dementia?

Can my loved one sign legal documents even with dementia?  It depends. (How’s that for a lawyer’s answer?!).  It depends on how progressed is the dementia and if, at the time of signing, your loved one has the requisite capacity.  Courts have found that even people in the most advanced stages of dementia can be competent to sign important legal documents.  Understand that the medical definition of incapacity is different from the legal definition of incapacity.  A person diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease or another dementia may still be legally competent to sign documents.  It is possible that a doctor could already have written a statement of incapacity regarding the person but this is not determinative of legal incapacity.  The capacity requirements for each legal document can be different.  Your attorney should discuss capacity issues with you and will know the legal requirements.

2. What are the core planning documents I need?

It is important for most people to have these documents. For people where dementia is at issue, it is even more important.  These are the documents you need:

  • a client-specific durable power of attorney containing long-term care planning provisions (generic forms rarely suffice)
  • health care directions (often referred to as Living Wills and Health Care Surrogate Designations)
  • a Last Will and Testament
  • a trust agreement.

3. What is the single greatest threat to my financial security? 

The catastrophic cost of long term care is the greatest threat to the finances of people over the age of 50.  People with dementia need more care for longer.  Most people do not want to think about or plan for what happens when they need extended care.  The fact is that most people will require long-term care and most will either not be able to afford it or will get wiped out by the cost.  There are legal and ethical ways of protecting one’s life savings against the cost of care without giving away assets and without waiting out penalty periods.  Ask your lawyer for a referral to an Elder Law specialist unless they are themselves so certified.

4. Are you (the lawyer) a certified specialist? 

The Florida Bar certifies attorneys as specialists in certain practice areas such as Wills, Trusts and Estates or in Elder Law or in Criminal Law.  Gone are the days of the general practitioner who can handle your Will, your traffic ticket, your divorce and your contracts.  Seeing a specialist is safer and usually the same cost.

Attorneys who are certified as Specialists by The Florida Bar must pass a lengthy and difficult written examination, peer review of their practice and an audit of what types of cases and how many they have handled.  Among lawyers, Board Certification is a big deal.  It should be a big deal to you too.  Elder Law Attorneys have specific experience in dementia-specific and health-related legal matters.  It can make a very big difference in quality of life.  Even if you have another type of attorney as your estate planning lawyer or family lawyer, you can still visit with an Elder Law Attorney and keep your regular attorney.

5. Are there dementia-specific provisions for Powers of Attorney?

Elder Law Attorneys include many provisions for dementia-specific and long-term care issues not found in typical powers of attorney.  For example, one big issue of late is hospitals and nursing homes chasing adult children for their parents’ unpaid bills.  The facilities seek the patient’s signature on the admissions agreements but they also want the children’s signatures.

The power of attorney should contain a specific provision authorizing the children to sign these admission agreements on your behalf.  That way, when they sign, they are signing in a representative capacity and they are not individually liable.

Another example are the provisions included by Elder Law Attorneys for Medicaid and V.A. benefit planning.  With changes in the laws, it is more important than ever for your agents to have the authority they will need to protect your assets even if you yourself cannot sign.  Does the power of attorney specifically waive self-dealing prohibitions?  Does the document authorize transfers of assets even to the agent(s)?

A power of attorney is not a form document but instead provides a good lawyer with an opportunity to draft to his or client’s anticipated needs.

6. Do my documents “ladder” successors or do they make use of co-agents?

One of the greatest areas where powers of attorney, trusts and health care documents break down is when one agent is not able to act and the next person on the list tries to do so.

Many documents “ladder” successors by saying if #1 cannot act, then #2 shall act and so on.  This might make sense in the theoretical world of drafting a document but in real life, this can create BIG problems.  People with dementia and their loved ones are much more likely than others to need to use the documents imminently.  In real life, when #2 shows up at the bank to pay bills or at the hospital to make decisions, the bank or hospital is going to say “Where is #1?”.  Until #1 is proven to be incompetent or deceased, #2 has no authority to act.  Meanwhile, nothing is getting done and often decisions, especially health-related, must be made quickly.

There are good ways of using co-agents that are safe, more effective and more likely to lead to the enforcement of your wishes.  This would be through the use of Co-Trustees, Co-Powers of Attorney and Co-Surrogates using language that avoids pitfalls.  Co-agents are not for everyone.  Discuss with your attorney.

7. What is a “Lady Bird deed” and should I have one? 

A Lady Bird deed is a special kind of residential real estate deed which allows your property to pass to your children or other heirs immediately upon your death without normal costs, probate and court proceedings.  The Lady Bird deed allows you to (1) own your home for the rest of your life; (2) retain your full homestead tax exemption; (3) retain your full homestead creditor protection; (4) where applicable, retain eligibility for Medicaid and other need-based programs; and (5) name beneficiaries of the home very similar to beneficiaries of an insurance policy.  Most of my clients benefit from having a Lady Bird deed.  My father is the attorney who gave the “Lady Bird deed” its name and explained the deed to other lawyers early in the field of Elder Law.

8. How much do you charge?

It is absolutely appropriate (I would say necessary) to ask a lawyer how he or she charges before you retain the attorney.  Every lawyer charges differently.  Some lawyers charge hourly, others charge a flat fee which is a set amount for a specified task.  Some lawyers charge consultation fees; others charge none.

It is typical for personal injury or trial lawyers to do free consultations.  Most successful transactional attorneys (estate planning attorneys, elder law attorneys, etc.) charge a consultation fee.  In fact, this may be one way to judge the demand and therefore the reputation of a particular lawyer.  If the lawyer is “giving away” his or her time or is charging less than the norm, that may be because they have to do so.  Successful lawyers are busy and sometimes more expensive but the difference in fee can often be well worth it even on cases that the client think to be “simple.”

Do not expect a lawyer to quote you a fee or even an estimate before an initial meeting.  You may think you know what needs to be done, and you may be right, but the lawyer must put you through an intake process to be sure of the “prescription” to quote an appropriate fee.

Ask exactly how your fee will be calculated.  It is usual for there to be a signed agreement which puts everything into writing about the fee and the scope of the job.

9. What should I do with my original legal documents? 

Your original legal documents should be kept in a safe, fire-resistant, water-resistant place. Be sure this place is known to and accessible by your children or other trusted agent(s).  Copies are usually just as good as originals but some third-parties still ask for originals.  Some lawyers provide safe-keeping of certain original legal documents in special vaults or cabinets.  If you retain your own originals, buy a fire-resistant box and tell your loved ones how they can access it.

10. How can I carry my health care documents with me? 

You may have the best documents ever but if they aren’t available when you need them, it may do you no good.  Your important documents must be kept handy.  We’ve created a “Digital Pocket Vault,” to help with this. The “Digital Pocket Vault” is a computer flash drive, the size of a credit card, designed to be carried in your wallet.  If a paramedic responds to an emergency and you cannot speak, the paramedic will look in your wallet for your I.D., they will also find this “vault”. The vault can be plugged into any computer, including the one in the ambulance or hospital.  Ask your lawyer how you can keep these critical health care documents portable.

    Solkoff ResourcesWELCOME

    Because each person’s case is different, because laws and rules change rapidly, because different states can have different laws and because this article was not written as legal advice, you should not rely upon this article or any other resources on as legal advice. You may link to the articles and pages on If you wish to post, copy or distribute the articles or any portion thereof, we invite and require you to first obtain written consent from Solkoff Legal, P.A. All articles are Copyright :copyright: Solkoff Legal, P.A. unless otherwise stated.


    We went to Solkoff Legal for advice on elder law. We needed to know what we could do, what we couldn't do, what we should do and what we shouldn't do. They were great.

    Phyllis S.

    We have worked with Scott, Heather and the awesome team at Solkoff Legal for many years and have been pleased with their services. We often need a resource who is knowledgeable in elder law and special needs planning in the Delray area and we are confident when recommending this dynamic team. They are responsive, compassionate and all-around good people. I would recommend this group to anyone needing estate planning, elder law or special needs planning for their family.

    Ashley G.

    When it comes to elder law, trust and estate planning, and medicaid asset protection, there is no name that is better known throughout Florida than SOLKOFF.  I have used Solkoff Legal for a long time, as has members of my family and clients whom I have referred. Attorney Scott Solkoff and his staff are true experts in this field, are consummate professionals, and have the client's best interests at heart. In fact, I believe Solkoff has received many awards not only for his humanitarian work in his community, but from his peers for his professional excellence.  I would recommend Solkoff to anyone looking for the very best...A+++!

    Marc H.

    Scott Solkoff is a man of principles and integrity. Always willing to share his vast knowledge on Elder Law and is up to date on the changes of the law. I am happy to call him my Elder Law professor and mentor. You simply can't go wrong with Solkoff Law.

    Joseph L

    Top elder law attorney. Both personally and professionally, I have utilized Solkoff Law for over 10 years. Personally, he has helped my dad before he passed at 101. His expertise and knowledge helped dad pass in a beautiful assisted living facility because of his work in family asset protection. He has prepare custom documents for me and my wife who is disabled. Professionally, he has helped dozens of my clients in long term care planning and for caring for a child of special needs. I have shared the podium with Scott and have been in meetings with his clients and mine. He is one of the most skilled attorneys that I have ever worked with in 30 years of wealth management practice. His staff is first rate and always responsive to my calls or those of clients. I have gone on end of life hospital visits with him to complete planning to help the family when their loved one is about to pass. Solkoff Legal is first class, knowledgeable, caring and accessible They are the team you want on your side with your planning and problems.


    These testimonials contain information about the firm’s past results, and individual opinions about the lawyers and firm’s quality based on individual experiences. Testimonials are voluntarily written by those with previous experience with the firm. Because each case is different, prospective clients may not achieve the same or similar results.

    Solkoff Legal is Board Certified by The Florida Bar.

    Board certification recognizes attorneys’ special knowledge, skills, and proficiency in various areas of law, professionalism, and ethics. Solkoff lawyers are Florida Bar Board Certified Specialists in Elder Law.

    Solkoff Legal is a member of the National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys, Inc.

    NAELA is a non-profit organization that assists lawyers, bar organizations, and others. Their mission is to educate, inspire, serve, and provide community to attorneys with practices in special needs and elder law.

    The logo for The American College of Trust and Estate Counsel.

    ACTEG fellowship is awarded based on exceptional skill & reputation. Lawyers must have more than 10 years experience in the practice of probate & trust law or estate planning–knowledge crucial in practicing elder law.

    Solkoff Legal is a member of the Elder Care Matters Alliance.

    Resource for elder and senior care experts with information & answers about a wide range of eldercare-related matters. Their primary areas of focus are elder law attorneys, home care providers, and senior living.

    The logo for Super Lawyers.

    Super Lawyers is a rating service of outstanding lawyers who have attained a high degree of peer recognition & professional achievement. Solkoff Legal has been recognized as experts in elder law, estate planning & probate.